Modern Pharmaceutical Analytical Techniques Notes [FREE PDF]

Hi guys, in this post, I have provided an overview and PDFs of notes on the subject Modern Pharmaceutical Analytical Techniques. Read the overview below, and by clicking on the download button, you can easily download the PDFs of these notes.

These notes are designed according to the PCI syllabus for M.Pharmacy (Master of Pharmacy) students in India, so all M.Pharmacy students in India can make use of them.

Modern Pharmaceutical Analytical Techniques is a subject that is common to all specializations in the M.Pharmacy course in India, except for Regulatory Affairs and Pharmacy Practice, in the 1st semester.


Modern Pharmaceutical Analytical Techniques notes are written in simple language, providing a concise overview of advanced analytical instrumental techniques used in the identification, characterization, and quantification of drugs. The focus is on several key instruments, including NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), Mass Spectrometry, IR (Infrared Spectroscopy), HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography), and GC (Gas Chromatography).

The objectives of these notes are twofold. Firstly, students will gain knowledge about Chemicals and Excipients, which are important components of pharmaceutical formulations. Secondly, they will develop the necessary skills to analyze various drugs in both single and combination dosage forms.

The notes aim to equip students with both theoretical and practical proficiency in utilizing these analytical instruments. By the end of the notes, students will have a solid understanding of the principles behind the instruments and will be capable of effectively employing them for drug analysis.

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1) UV-Visible spectroscopy:

a. Introduction
b. Theory
c. Laws
d. Instrumentation associated with UV-Visible spectroscopy.
e. Choice of solvents and solvent effect
f. Applications of UV-Visible spectroscopy

2) IR spectroscopy:

a. Theory
b. Modes of Molecular vibrations
c. Sample handling
d. Instrumentation of Dispersive and Fourier-Transform IR Spectrometer
e. Factors affecting vibrational frequencies.
f. Applications of IR spectroscopy

3) Spectrofluorimetric:

a. Theory of Fluorescence
b. Factors affecting fluorescence.
c. Quenchers
d. Instrumentation
e. Applications of fluorescence spectrophotometer

4) Flame emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy:

a. Principle
b. Instrumentation
c. Interferences
d. Applications

5) NMR spectroscopy:

a. Principle
b. Instrumentation
c. Solvent requirement in NMR
d. Quantum numbers and their role in NMR
e. Relaxation process
f. NMR signals in various compounds
g. Chemical shift
h. Factors influencing chemical shift.
i. Spin-Spin coupling
j. Coupling constant
k. Nuclear magnetic double resonance
l. Brief outline of principles of FT-NMR and 13C NMR
m. Applications of NMR spectroscopy

6) Mass Spectroscopy:

a. Principle, Theory
b. Instrumentation of Mass Spectroscopy
c. Different types of ionization like electron impact, chemical, field, FAB and MALDI, APCI, ESI, APPI
d. Analyzers of Quadrupole and Time of Flight
e. Mass fragmentation and its rules
f. Meta stable ions, Isotopic peaks
g. Applications of Mass spectroscopy

7) Chromatography:

a. Principle, apparatus, instrumentation
b. Chromatographic parameters
c. Factors affecting resolution.
d. Applications of the following:
  • Paper chromatography
  • Thin Layer chromatography
  • Ion exchange chromatography
  • Column chromatography
  • Gas chromatography
  • High-Performance Liquid chromatography
  • Affinity chromatography

8) Electrophoresis:

a. Principle, Instrumentation, Working conditions.
b. Factors affecting separation.
c. Applications of the following:
  • Paper electrophoresis
  • Gel electrophoresis
  • Capillary electrophoresis
  • Zone electrophoresis
  • Moving boundary electrophoresis
  • Isoelectric focusing

9) X-ray Crystallography:

a. Production of X-rays
b. Different X-ray diffraction methods
c. Bragg’s law
d. Rotating crystal technique
e. X-ray powder technique
f. Types of crystals
g. Applications of X-ray diffraction

10) Immunological assays:

a. RIA (Radio immune assay)
c. Bioluminescence assays

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